frigidfire86, I am German, albeit living in the US but my father who is still in Germany has had many procedures done.
As to some of your questions:
Yes, you will be able to receive visitors. There are usually visiting hours and they should be adhered to so that patients get the rest they need and to allow for daily doctor visits and treatments.
Yes, you can expect to stay possibly a little longer than in a US hospital.
Unless you are a 'private patient' with extra insurance coverage, you can expect to share your room with at least one other patient.
If you feel you want a second opinion, get one!
A lot of the pre-op stuff is done once your surgery date is scheduled. For example, my father was diagnosed with some prostate and kidney issues. It was recommended to do surgery. He was given a date for the surgery and scheduled to check into the hospital 8 a.m. the day before. Blood work, EKG etc were all done the day before the surgery.
You might need to ask for pain killers; this is something I found to be a huge difference between the US and Germany. In the US I was offered pain killers without having to ask, in Germany they seemed more conservative with it. But you should certainly get them if you ask.
As far as I know risks are usually discussed as part of the pre-op activities once you are admitted to the hospital.
PM me if you need translation help or if you have any specific questions.